Thorium Reactors – Advantages and Disadvantages. Clementine was the very first liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor and used mercury coolant, thought to be the obvious choice since it is liquid at room temperature. However, doing so results in too much power consumption and heat generation. A Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor, liquid metal fast reactor or LMFR is an advanced type of nuclear reactor where the primary coolant is a liquid metal. Welds may be tested using NDT techniques such as industrial radiography or industrial CT scanning using X-rays or gamma rays, ultrasonic testing, liquid penetrant testing, magnetic particle inspection or via eddy current. Less clutter and more space: Traditional air cooling uses fans. the work was carried out for two types of NPIs: with pressurized water reactors and reactors cooled by liquid metal coolant (LMC). LFTRs hold many advantages over conventional uranium or plutonium reactors, in terms of both cost and safety. The enriched fuel permits operation to economic levels of fuel burnup. Each design has its own advantages and disadvantages. It is very difficult to explain the possible advantages and disadvantages. Liquid metal cooled reactor Last updated August 15, 2019. 5. In contrast to the more common LWR reactor vessel, which is aligned in a vertical configuration, a CANDU reactor vessel is aligned horizontally. The Soviet November-class submarine K-27 and all seven Alfa-class submarines used reactors cooled by a lead-bismuth alloy (VT-1 reactors in K-27; BM-40A and OK-550 reactors in others). The melting point can be lowered by alloying the lead with bismuth, but lead-bismuth eutectic is highly corrosive to most metals used for structural materials.  The reactor was repaired and returned to service in September 1960 and ended operation in 1964. As a breeder reactor the DFR can burn both natural uranium and thorium, as well as recycle nuclear waste. A typical air-cooled PC has several fans installed inside the PC case. In all types the heat extracted from the core by primary sodium is transferred to a secondary, nonradioactive sodium loop, which serves as the heat source for a steam generator that heats the water in a tertiary loop to power a turbine. A gas cooled reactor was first developed in U.K. which uses C02 as coolant instead of water and graphite as moderator. Such a reactor is suitable for countries that do not plan to build their own nuclear infrastructure. The liquid sodium is then circulated by the pump.  An SFR can achieve a core power density of around 300 MW/m 3 compared with Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) that achieve 100 MW/m 3 . Liquid Solid: 1. The liquid Nak gets heated in the primary loop heat exchanger after taking heat from hot sodium. 2. Capacity factor refers to the ratio of time that a reactor is operating at full power during a given period versus the total available time during that same period. A coolant of carbon dioxide absorbs and transports heat to a steam generator, where the heat is conducted to the secondary loop and ultimately to a traditional steam-turbine cycle. Background. 1. Liquid sodium (Na) serves as the primary coolant and an alloy of sodium potassium (NaK) as the secondary coolant. The passive safety systems are very important safety feature in the SMR. Further advantages of tin are the high boiling point and the ability to build a crust even over liquid tin helps to cover poisonous leaks and keeps the coolant in and at the reactor. Superphenix used sodium). Liquid metal cooled reactors were first adapted for nuclear submarine use but have also been extensively studied for power generation applications. A Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor, liquid metal fast reactor or LMFR is an advanced type of nuclear reactor where the primary coolant is a liquid metal. Radiography testing (RT) involves the use of penetrating gamma or X-radiation to examine parts and products for imperfections. More Information on reusing IAEA copyright material. Herein, a historical perspective of MSRs will be presented along with a brief overview of the principles of operation and the role that various molten salts play in such reactors. A reactor of this kind consists of a tank, or calandria vessel, containing a cold heavy water moderator at atmospheric pressure. In the United States, however, the greatest success has been with metal fuels. A sodium-cooled fast reactor is a fast neutron reactor cooled by liquid sodium.. In principle this reactor is similar to the LMFR previously discussed, but it has many features that arc different; for example, it has a noncirculating fuel, and the heat is removed by cooling with helium under pressure . Liquid-metal reactors. While pressurised water could theoretically be used for a fast reactor, it tends to slow down neutrons and absorb them. Fast neutron reactor cores tend to generate a lot of heat in a small space when compared to reactors of other classes. The reactor core in all such systems is a tightly packed bundle of fuel in steel cladding through which the sodium coolant flows to extract the heat. The third type of reactor is based on a liquid metal-UO2 slurry fuel. The United States, France, and Russia have done most of the development in this area. Advantages and Disadvantages. They do, however, ignite spontaneously on contact with air and react violently with water, producing hydrogen gas. This limits the amount of water that can be allowed to flow through the reactor core, and since fast reactors have a high power density most designs use molten metals instead. Electric-power generation is obtained through the transfer of the heat of fission into the heavy-water coolant, which is circulated to a steam generator. In the USA sodium was chosen as LMC as it possessed the better thermo-hydraulic characteristics. Each design has its own advantages and disadvantages. High conversion per unit volume for one pass. Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor: This type of reactor has been developed to avoid difficulties faced in pressurization of water as in PWR and at the same time retaining the advantage of having high temperature. Sometimes these are called breeder, fast, or fast breeder reactors. The basic diagram of gas cooled reactor power plant is shown in figure, Gas Cooled Reactor Power plant | enggarena.net Gas Cooled Reactor Power Plant It uses natural Uranium as fuel. The following features are not general for all scintillators. Liquid metal cooled reactors were first adapted for nuclear submarine use but have also been extensively studied for power generation applications. The fuel assembly of a CANDU reactor, which consists of a bundle of short zirconium alloy-clad tubes containing natural uranium dioxide pellets, can be changed while the system is running.  Disadvantages include difficulties associated with inspection and repair of a reactor immersed in opaque molten metal, and depending on the choice of metal, fire hazard risk (for alkali metals), corrosion and/or production of radioactive activation products may be an issue. Nuclear reactor - Nuclear reactor - Types of reactors: Most of the world’s existing reactors are power reactors, providing the heat needed to turn turbines that run electric-power generators. Thorium is usually thrown away during the process of mining rare-earth metals. The Sodium Reactor Experiment was an experimental sodium-cooled nuclear reactor sited in a section of the Santa Susana Field Laboratory then operated by the Atomics International division of North American Aviation. When it became clear in the 1980s that this was not a realistic expectation, enthusiasm waned. A coolant fluid enters the core at low temperature and exits at a higher temperature after collecting the fission energy. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory developed SSTAR is a lead-cooled design.. Germany. Reactor (SGR): The reactor shown in figure uses two liquid metal coolants. Efficiency. The dual fluid reactor (DFR) is a German project combining the advantages of the molten salt reactor with the ones of the liquid metal cooled reactor. The potential of a thorium reactor is this: it could provide enough clean energy for every person, community, and nation on our planet. Many Generation IV reactor studies are liquid metal cooled: Bunker, Merle E. "Early Reactors From Fermi’s Water Boiler to Novel Power Prototypes" a chapter in, http://library.lanl.gov/cgi-bin/getfile?00416628.pdf, http://www.ncnr.nist.gov/resources/n-lengths/elements/hg.html, http://www.osti.gov/energycitations/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=4803122, ATMOSPHERIC CORROSION OF TIN AND TIN ALLOY, Ukraine advises Japan to use tin to cool Fukushima reactor, The Decay of the Atomic Powered Aircraft Program, Small sealed transportable autonomous (SSTAR), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Liquid_metal_cooled_reactor&oldid=996129573, Articles with dead external links from March 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 18:26. The result of this policy is the Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactor—a line of natural uranium-fueled reactors moderated and cooled by heavy water. Possible Advantages The reactor core is cooled by liquid metal (sodium or potassium). Its successor, EBR-II, was used from 1963 to 1994 to test equipment and materials. 184.108.40.206 Liquid Metal-Cooled Fast Reactor. Thorium is much more abundant than Uranium, and is significantly cheaper due to the abundance. • Sodium works as a coolant and graphite works as moderator. However, because lead has a high melting point and a high vapor pressure, it is tricky to refuel and service a lead cooled reactor. Although tin until today is not used as a coolant for working reactors because it builds a crust, it can be a useful additional or replacement coolant at nuclear disasters or loss-of-coolant accidents. Two physical arrangements of the reactor core, pumps, and heat exchanger are possible. Nuclear reactor - Nuclear reactor - Coolant system: The function of a power reactor installation is to extract as much heat of nuclear fission as possible and convert it to useful power, generally electricity. Advantages: Disadvantages: 1. However, because of disadvantages including high toxicity, high vapor pressure even at room temperature, low boiling point producing noxious fumes when heated, relatively low thermal conductivity, and a high neutron cross-section, it has fallen out of favor. The advanced gas-cooled reactor (AGR) was developed in the United Kingdom as the successor to reactors of the Calder Hall class, which combined plutonium production and power generation. This key role in advanced fuel cycles and new, innovative applications have revived the interest in various alternative fast reactor concepts such as liquid heavy metal and gas-cooled systems which, in the longer term, are perceived to have some advantages over the conventional sodium-cooled fast reactors. 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