population.  Collection of data on race and ethnicity in the United States Census has changed over time, including addition of new enumeration categories and changes in definitions of those categories. Nearly all non Native American commercial activity was run in small privately owned businesses with good credit both at home and in England being essential since they were often cash poor. These settlers were of about 60% German and 33% English extraction. In the early years of the United States, immigration average about 6,000 people per year, including French refugees from the slave revolt in Haiti. Colonial Heritage is an area in Stonehouse District,James City County,Virginia with a population of 43,687. Richard E. Barrett, Donald J. Bogue, and Douglas L. Anderton. The first significant Catholic immigration started in the mid-1840s. Map of the Thirteen Colonies at the End of the Colonial Period. During the American colonial period, British colonial officials conducted censuses in some of the Thirteen Colonies that included enumerations by race. Regional disparities in local economies have also grown during this time, meaning that more people remain in economically depressed areas. Note that the U. S. Census numbers do not include American Indian natives before 1860.. New Jersey and Delaware had a majority of British with 20% German-descended colonists, about a 6% black population, and a small contingent of Swedish descendants of New Sweden. , The United States Census enumerated Whites and Blacks since 1790, Asians and Native Americans since 1860 (though all Native Americans in the U.S. were not enumerated until 1890), "some other race" since 1950, and "two or more races" since 2000. Source: National Center for Health Statistics, Census Bureau Intercensal Estimates . grants. American Antiquity 74.2 (2009): 211–30. During the 1930s, the number of marriages and the marriage rate dropped steeply due to the Great Depression, but rebounded almost immediately after the Depression ended. , Series Z-19 U.S. Census Total immigration for the year 1820 was 8,385, gradually building to 23,322 by 1830, with 143,000 total immigrating during the decade. , During the baby boom years, between 1946 and 1964, the birth rate doubled for third children and tripled for fourth children. Easterlin has attempted to explain the cause of the Baby Boom and Baby Bust through the "relative income" theory.  Most Asian Americans historically lived in the western United States. They had fewer rights than women and children do today, yet they had many responsibilities and activities that contributed to their families and communities. , The number of children under 19 rose to 69 million in 1960 from 51 million in 1950, a 35.3% increase, while the proportion of the population rose to 38.8% up from 33.8% in 1950. However, much like Texas, the Mexican government had encouraged immigration and settlement of these regions from groups in the United States and Europe. Numerous factors prevented Colonial America from becoming a united empire.  From at least 1790 until the start of World War I, the overwhelming majority (around ninety percent) of African Americans lived in the southern United States. When colonists came to North America as a part of a British mercantilist policy, British institutions were transplanted to the new world along with them. The Colonial Period of Immigration History. They emphasized subsistence farming to grow food for their large families. Once in Canada, many Irish walked across the border or caught an intercoastal freighter to the nearest major city in the United States - usually Boston or New York. By 1784 all slavery in the New England states was either completely prohibited or transitioning to its total prohibition. Approximately half of this population is estimated to have been of American origin. M.- Mexico, Ch.- China, I.- India, P.- Philippines, D.R.- Dominican Republic, Cu.- Cuba, V.- Vietnam, K.- Korea (South & North), Col.- Colombia, H. - Haiti, E.S. Probably close to 80% of the families owned the land they lived and farmed on. In colonial America, the experiences of women and children varied widely, among ethnic and social groups, and from colony to colony. It is probably a reasonable estimate that the foreign born population in the U.S. reached its minimum in about 1815 at something like 100,000, or 1.4% of the population. In the 17th century, the colonies were populated almost entirely by the English. , The eastern and northern frontier around the initial New England settlements was mainly settled by the Yankee descendants of the original New Englanders. Richard Easterlin, an economist who has researched economic growth in the United States, explains the growth pattern of American population in the 20th century through fertility rate fluctuations and the decreasing mortality rate. The average age for first marriage for men is 27.4 and 25.6 years for women. Print. In the 17th century the principal component of the population in the colonies was of English origin, and the second largest group was of African heritage. In attempting to divert some of this traffic to help settle Canada, the British offered bargain fares of 15 shillings for transit to Canada, instead of the normal 5 pounds (100 shillings). From about 1675 onward, the native-born population of what would become the United States would never again drop below 85% of the total.  Population from US 1790 Census, The Total is the total immigration over the approximately 130-year span of colonial existence of the U.S. colonies as found in the 1790 census. In addition, tax lists and other reports provided additional data and information about the racial demographics of the Thirteen Colonies during this time period. Divining America: Religion in American History. By 1815 most of the immigrants that arrived before the American Revolution had died, and there had been almost no new immigration. Since the men who came back got jobs in the workplace again, married women stayed home to take care of the house and children and let their husbands be the breadwinner of the household. . Most non-white babies of non-Hispanic white mothers are either Hispanic or black, and non-Hispanic black mothers occasionally have Hispanic children. German and Scotch-Irish immigrants arrived in large numbers during the 18th century. APUSH—Kind Colonial Demographics Colonial America into the 18th Century •An Overview Characteristics of Colonial Regions: New England •Geography & Economy –Rocky Soil, Rapid Rivers, Short Growing Seasons, Good Harbors –Small Family Farms, Occupations Center on Trade (Fish, Lumber), Crafts, Manufacture (Shipbuilding) –Participated in the Triangle Trade The Colonial Population The population of the American colonies through the 18th century was primarily a mixture of immigrants from different countries in Europe and slaves from Africa. This article is about the demographic history of the United States. They were mostly farmers and settled in small villages for common religious activity. This situ… Nearly all of these enumerations were more than a simple numbering of the people; in some instances, the inhabitants were classified by race, sex, age, and marital condition. Cyprus was calculated in Europe. New England's healthy climate (the cold winters killed mosquitoes and other disease-bearing insects), and abundant food supply resulted in the lowest death rate and highest birth rate of any place in the world (marriage was expected and birth control was not, and a much higher than average number of children and mothers survived). The War of 1812 (1812â1814) with Britain again prevented any significant immigration. Prior policy favored European immigrants. , All the colonies grew mostly by natural growth, with foreign born populations rarely exceeding 10%. The French Revolution, starting in 1789, and the Napoleonic Wars from 1792 to 1814 severely limited immigration from Europe. A demographic history of colonial populations: ... Third, some original populations were decimated and replaced by populations of pioneers, as in most of North America. "A census-based count of the Civil War Dead.". Most moved to large industrial cities, as well as to many smaller industrial cities.African-Americans moved as individuals or small groups. Nearly all were at least third-generation natives. They were 90% of whites in 1700. , The number of children aged 0â4 increased to 16,410,000 in 1950 from 11,000,000 in 1940, it continued into the 1960s where it peaked at 20,000,000 children under the age of 5. * United States, Paraguay, Suriname, French Guiana, Bermuda, Anguilla, Antigua-Barbuda, Aruba, Barbados, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles (and Curaçao), Saint Kitts-Nevis, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Turks and Caicos Islands and US Virgin Islands. By the 1970s, most immigrants to the U.S. came from Latin America or Asia, rather than Europe. By 1804 all slavery in the Middle colonies (except Delaware [6.6% Black]) was either completely prohibited or was transitioning to its total prohibition. Projections of the Population by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States: 2015 to 2060. The table below shows the percentage of free Blacks as a percentage of the total Black population in various U.S. regions and U.S. states between 1790 and 1860 (the blank areas on the chart below mean that there is no data for those specific regions or states in those specific years). The second part examines the way the Indian population slowly recovered, from midway through the colonial period, and the white and mestizo population expanded rapidly, especially in the eighteenth century. By 1808 Congress had banned the transport of slaves, slowing that human traffic to a trickle. Emigration to the New England colonies after 1640 and the start of the English Civil War decreased to less than 1% (about equal to the death rate) in nearly all years before 1845. Map of the War of Independence and the War of 1812-1814 . Many of the colonists, especially from the New England colonies, were already into their fifth generation of being in America.  The tables present Census Bureau "middle series" projections published in May 2013.  The southern Irish were overwhelmingly Protestant.  In December 2012, the U.S. Census Bureau projected that 2043 would be the year in which the U.S. would become a majority minority nation, with no single ethnic classification constituting a majority of the population. * The data from 2016 to 2019, exclude those of hispanic origin. , People have been enumerated by race in every United States Census since the first one in 1790. Silliman, Stephen W. "Change and Continuity, Practice and Memory: Native American Persistence in Colonial New England." the Colonial period, and several of the states took one or more censuses during the Continental period. There was a shift in the population from the dense city centers filled with apartments, row homes, and tenements; to less dense suburban neighborhoods outside the cities which were filled with single family homes. The census of 1850 was the first in which place of birth was asked. The main feature of the economy in Virginia, Maryland and South Carolina was large plantations growing staples for export, especially tobacco and rice. Susan B. Carter, Scott Sigmund Gartner, Michael R. Haines, and Alan L. Olmstead, eds. The middle colonies' settlements were scattered west of New York City, New York (est. , Hispanic or Latino Population by Type of Origin and Race: 2010, American Indian and Alaska Native 2010-2017 (Estimates), Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 2010-2017 (Estimates), Immigration to the United States by region and country:. Map of the North American Colonies (Colbeck) Map of the American Colonies: Population Density 1775. After Christopher Columbus’ historic voyage in 1492, Spain dominated the race to establish colonies in the Americas, while English efforts, such as the “lost colony” of Roanoke, met with failure. By 1780 about 27% of New York's population were descendants of Dutch settlers (55,000 of 204,000). The American population doubled every generation. In addition, many people were sent to America against their will—convicts, political prisoners, and enslaved Africans. Following this period, the next generation had a greater desire for material objects; however, an economic slowdown in the United States made jobs harder to acquire. Colonial Beach Demographics. The U.S. Census Bureau has projected that the U.S. White non-Hispanic population will become a minority (that is, less than half of the total U.S. population) during the 2040s, resulting in a plurality.  Many of the original manufacturing cities lost as much as half their populations between 1950 and 1980. All slavery was prohibited in the entire U.S. in 1865 by the 13th amendment to the constitution (ratified Dec. 6, 1865), except on some American Indian reservations, where it was abolished by treaty in 1866. North America in the decades before the Revolution. British national debt in 1755: £72,289,67342 British national debt in 1763: £122,603,33643 British national debt in 1764: £129,586,789 (This was money that the British government borrowed from banks and investors, and it would be the equivalent of tens of trillions of dollars today. Colin Bonwick, The American Revolution, 1991, p. 253, William J. Collins, "Race, Roosevelt, and wartime production: fair employment in World War II labor markets. The enormous growth of war industries in WW1 and WW2 created new job openings for blacks. estimated population of american colonies: 1610 to 1780 : pp. Thousands of poor Irish took advantage of this offer and headed to Canada on what came to be called the "coffin ships" because of their high death rates. The Historical Demography of Colonial Central America W. George Lovell Department of Geography Queen's University Kingston, Ontario, Canada Christopher H. Lutz CIRMA/Plumsock Mesoamerican Studies South Woodstock, VT 05071 ABSTRACT Literature available in English and in Spanish, much of it published over the past ten years, is reviewed in an The first permanent British settlement in Colonial America was established in 1607, at Jamestown, in what is now Virginia. According to the most recent ACS, the racial composition of Colonial Beach was: White: 77.64%; Black or African American: 10.32%; Two or more races: 7.37%; Native American: 2.11%; Asian: 1.91%; Other race: 0.65%; Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander: 0.00% Elsewhere the number given is 51,000 (80,000 in total less 29,000 Welsh). * New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Kiribati, Micronesia, Palau, American Samoa, French Polynesia, Marshall Islands, Samoa and Tonga. Economic Growth Estimating longer run trends in Colonial Incomes is more difficult. They established their own popularly elected governments and courts and were mostly self-governing, self-supporting and self-replicating. The ancestry of the 3.9 million population in 1790 has been estimated from various sources by sampling last names in the 1790 census and assigning them a country of origin. This pattern would continue throughout U.S. history. In 1849, the California Gold Rush spurred significant immigration from Mexico, South America, China, Australia, Europe and caused a mass internal migration within the U.S., resulting in California gaining statehood in 1850, with a population of about 90,000. The number of marriages shot up to reach over 2 million in 1946, with a marriage rate of 16.4 per 1,000 people as WWII had ended. 1610â1780 population data. During WWII birthrates had been low, as millions of men had been away fighting in WWII and this had deterred women from starting families: women also had to take the place of men in the workplace, while simultaneously fulfilling their household duties. During the colonial period, Native Americans had a complicated relationship with European settlers. Many of the Irish immigrants specialized in making rye whiskey, which they sold to obtain cash.  Most settlements were created by complete family groups with several generations often present. South Region – Race and Hispanic Origin: 1790 to 1990", "Blacks return to Southern roots - USATODAY.com", "Fresh Air Interview: Journalist Isabel Wilkerson – Exploring The Great African-American Migration", "Table 5. London: Printed for Lockyer Davis, in Holborn, Printer to the Royal Society, 1772.  The census numbers do not include Native Americans until 1860. COLONIES, DISTRIBUTION OF WEALTH IN (ISSUE) By studying the way wealth was distributed in the American colonies, we can learn a great deal about their economy, like the relationship of the social structure to economic opportunity. Middle Series", "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: historical demographical data of the whole country", "United States - Death rate: Death rate, crude (per 1,000 people)", https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr60/nvsr60_01.pdf, "National Vital Statistics Reports. The Great Migration was the movement of millions of African Americans out of the rural Southern United States from 1914 to 1960. Secondary Sources. However, the percentage of the Hispanic/Latino population has dramatically increased in many U.S. states both inside and outside the Southwest in recent decades. The total number of households is 17,211 with 3 people per household on average.The median age of the current population is 46 with 21,673 people being married and 15,650 being single. Latin America is a group of countries from the Americas, comprised of countries scattered across North America, South America, Central America and the Caribbean.The countries are characterized by their use of the Romance languages Spanish, French, Creole and Portuguese.  Hispanics (as well as the Non-Hispanic White population) were enumerated since 1940 (with the exception of 1950 and 1960), but some estimates for the Hispanic (and Non-Hispanic White) population were made for certain years before 1940 (as well as for 1950 and 1960). Nearly all non Native American commercial activity was run in small privately owned businesses with good credit both at home and in England being essential since they were often cash poor. Nearly all population growth up to 1830 was by internal increase; about 98.5% of the population was native-born. From the turn of the 18th century through the Revolution, the arrival of minority immigrant populations including the Dutch, Germans, Scots, Scotch-Irish, Swedes, Irish and Africans imported as slaves, have helped to shape identity of America. Lois Green Carr, and Philip D. Morgan, eds. Notes: Estimates for the population of each race by year (available starting in 2000) do not include multiracial individuals which have been "bridged" to the single-race categories for the purposes of calculating the birth and fertility rates.  In addition, before 1865, the overwhelming majority of African Americans were slaves. * Djibouti, Madagascar, Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, Seychelles, Angola, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, São Tomé and Príncipe, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland, Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania and Niger. The "relative income" theory suggests that couples choose to have children based on a couple's ratio of potential earning power and the desire to obtain material objects. Percent Distribution of the Projected Population by Race and Hispanic Origin for the United States: 2015 to 2060. According to one source  the following were the countries of origin for new arrivals coming to the United States before 1790. This volume Is a completely revised and expanded version of Historical Statistics of the United States, 1789-1946, issued in 1949.. At the time, Virginia was the English name for the entire eastern coast of North America north of Florida; they had na… The Irish in the 1790 census were mostly Scots Irish. U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970, Bicentennial Edition, Part 2, Series Z 1–19. There are 21,413 male residents living in Colonial Heritage and 22,274 female residents. They nearly all used English Common Law as their basic code of law and, except for the French, Dutch and Germans, spoke some dialect of English. Series Z-19 U.S. Census ", Smith, Daniel Scott, and Michael S. Hindus. The 1965 law directed that those with relatives in the U.S. or employer sponsorship now had priority. Haines, Michael R. and Richard H. Steckel (eds.). The regions marked * were part of Great Britain. Shipbuilding, commerce, and fisheries were important in coastal towns. By 1755, about 40% of Maryland's population was black. , In the years after WWII, the United States, as well as a number of other industrialized countries, experienced an unexpected sudden birth rate jump. There was no government assistance. However, some U.S. states had previously emancipated some or all of their Black population. The Dutch-started colony of New York had an eclectic collection of residents from many different nations and prospered as a major trading and commercial center after about 1700. * Czechoslovakia (former), Slovakia, Denmark, Estonia, Iceland, Latvia, Norway, Croatia, Malta, Montenegro, Serbia and Montenegro (former), Slovenia, Luxembourg and Monaco. ", Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Historical racial and ethnic demographics of the United States, Historical religious demographics of the United States, "CT1970p2-13: Colonial and Pre-Federal Statistics". Even after the Great Migration, no or almost no U.S. state outside of the Southern U.S. has ever had an African American percentage of its total population be greater than 16%. The U.S. population in 1900 was 76 million. By 1490, more than 3,000 slaves a year were transported to Portugal and Spain from Africa African Americans (Blacks) made up almost one-fifth of the United States population in 1790, but their percentage of the total U.S. population declined in almost every U.S. census until 1930. As Gary B. Nash states, “Any attempt to portray the colonies as unified and homogeneous would be misguided.”7 Diversity in Colonial Times—— 43 03-Parrillo-45518:03-Parrillo-45518.qxd 4/21/2008 3:05 PM Page 43 In 1965, U.S. immigration law changes reduced the emphasis on national origin. c^ Data on race from the 2000 and 2010 U.S. Censuses are not directly comparable with those from the 1990 census and previous censuses due, in large part, to giving respondents the option to report more than one race. North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 16.5% of the Earth's land area and about 4.8% of its total surface. 152,000 Germans, 76,000 British, and 46,000 French formed the next largest immigrant groups in that decade. The total white population in 1790 was about 80% of British ancestry, and would go on to roughly double by natural increase every 25 years. The Colonial Period of Immigration History. The 1610-1780 numbers, except for 1776, are estimates from the “Historical Statistics of the United States: Colonial Times to 1970,” issued by the Census Bureau, which cites as its main sources archival research and the statistical work of various scholars. For the first time federal records, including ship passenger lists, were kept for immigration. Hawes Joseph M. and Elizabeth I. Nybakken, eds. The total fertility rate of the United States jumped from 2.49 in 1945 to 2.94 in 1946, a rise of 0.45 children therefore beginning the baby boom. Canada in the 1790s, often referred to as "Late Loyalists." . By 2050, it is expected to reach 422-458 million, depending on immigration.. In 1955, 51.2% of women were married by their 20th birthday and 88% by their 25th birthday; 40.3% of men and 28.5% of women aged 20â24 in 1955 had never married, down from 77.8% for men and 57.4% for women in 1940.. From 1841 to 1850 immigration exploded to 1,713,000 total immigrants and at least 781,000 Irish who fled their homeland to escape poverty or death during the famine of 1845-1849. , a^ These population estimates include a small number of Native Americans/Indians as part of the Black/Negro population throughout this time period (1610–1780). Historical data for all races and for Hispanic origin (1610–2010), Non-Hispanic White population as a percentage of the total population by U.S. region and state (1910-2018), Black population as a percentage of the total population by U.S. region and state (1790–2010), Free Blacks as a percentage out of the total Black population by U.S. region and U.S. state between 1790 and 1860, Native American population as a percentage of the total population by U.S. region and state (1890-2010), Mexican (1910–1930) and Hispanic/Latino (1940–2010) population as a percentage of the total population by U.S. region and state, Asian and Pacific Islander population by U.S. region and state (1860-2010), Vital statistics of racial and ethnic groups (since 1935), American Indian and Alaskan Native (including of Hispanic origin). ", This page was last edited on 27 December 2020, at 21:36. Bad potato crops and failed revolutions struck the heart of Europe in 1848, contributing to the decade's total of 435,000 Germans, 267,000 British and 77,000 French immigrants to America. )44 Value of annual British imports to the North American colonies in the 1720s: just under £200,00045 Value of annual British imports to the North American colonies in the 1770s: nearly £885,00046 Average annual increase in th… One interesting case is when the European immigrants, from various origins, mixed together (for example in New-Orleans, Canada, but also Algeria). During the 17th century, approximately 350-400,000 English people migrated to Colonial America. The "relative income" theory explains the Baby Boom by suggesting that the late 1940s and 1950s brought low desires to have material objects, as a result of the Great Depression and WWII, as well as huge job opportunities, because of it being a post war period. Income levels were much higher in the North, with far higher wages in the service sector. They were mostly not political refugees but went for generous land grants and taxes 75 percent lower than in the United States. Most settlements were created by complete family groups with several generations often present. In contrast, the African American percentage of the total population in other parts of the U.S. (outside of the South) was historically almost always in the single digits (0.0% to 9.9%). This ratio depends on the economic stability of the country in which they live and how people are raised to value material objects. Daniel Scott Smith, "The demographic history of colonial New England.". The rapid growth of the New England colonies (total population â700,000 by 1790) was almost entirely due to the high birth rate (>3%) and low death rate (<1%) per year.. Hacker, J. David. Americas Society Art Gallery. Declining slowly thereafter to 3.65 in 1960 and finally a steep from decline after 1964, therefore ending the baby boom. As of 2002, 4.3% of men and 18.1% of women aged 20 are married, increasing to 37% of men and 52% of women by age 25, and then 61% of men and 76% of women by age 30. , From 1890 to 2010, the median age at first marriage was as follows:. However only half stayed permanently. The French were mostly Huguenots. a^ There are other estimates on this page which are a little different. Colonial America was a rich mixture of racial and ethnic hetero-geneity right up to the Revolutionary War. 56", "The American Indian and Alaska Native Population: 2000", "An Older and More Diverse Nation by Midcentury", "U.S. Census Bureau Projections Show a Slower Growing, Older, More Diverse Nation a Half Century from Now", "Table 4. In 1606, King James I granted a charter to a new venture, the Virginia Company, to form a settlement in North America. Total spending on Native Americans averaged $38 million a year in the late 1920s, dropping to a low of $23 million in 1933, and returning to $38 million in 1940.. On the other hand, all children born to Hispanic mothers, even if the mothers are white Hispanic, are counted as Hispanic. It continued to rise throughout the 1940s to reach 3.10 in 1950 with a peak of 3.77 in 1957. At the time of the, Many African-Americans wanted to avoid the racial segregation of the. - El Salvador, J. - Canada, Ir - Iraq, Pa - Pakistan. After 1890 the US rural population began to plummet, as farmers were displaced by mechanization and forced to migrate to urban factory jobs. By 1790 the ancestry question was starting to become irrelevant to many, as intermarriage from different ethnic groups was becoming common, causing people to form a common American identity. In Maryland, by 1700 there were about 25,000 people and by 1750 that had grown more than 5 times to 130,000. 1682).  Even the very high birth rate may not account for all of the nine-fold increase from 230,000 to 2.1 million. Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990... "U.S. Census Bureau 2017 National Population Projections Tables", "Median Age at First Marriage, 1890â2010", http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/united_states/exploration_1675.jpg, http://www2.census.gov/prod2/statcomp/documents/CT1970p2-13.pdf, "Trends in Migration to the U.S. â Population Reference Bureau", "Economic Geography, Politics, and Policy", "Internal Migration in the United States", https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/vsus.htm, "Births, Marriages, Divorces, and Deaths: Provisional Data for 2008", https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/working-papers/2009/demo/us-pop-proj-2000-2050/analytical-document09.pdf, Births of U.S. states and territories by race/ethnicity, Race and ethnicity in the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, Drafting and ratification of Constitution, Office of the Director of National Intelligence, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Demographic_history_of_the_United_States&oldid=996647320, Wikipedia articles needing reorganization from May 2016, Articles lacking in-text citations from May 2016, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2016, Articles with dead external links from September 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Several West African regions were the home to most African slaves transported to America. 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